Metanorma: Aequitate Verum

Bibliographic references


In IEEE deliverables, bibliographic references are presented in two categories, and put into these two sections:

  • “Normative references”, contain normative references, located at Clause 2;

  • “Bibliography”, contain informative references, placed as the first Annex.

Creating a bibliographic section

Every bibliographic section must be preceded by the style attribute [bibliography] so that bibliographic references are recognized as such.

Place them into the Normative references if they are a required part of this standard.

== Normative references

* [[[iso_19103,ISO 19103:2015]]], Geographic information — Conceptual schema language

* [[[w3c_owl,W3C owl-time]]], W3C Time Ontology in OWL

Or if the references are informative,

== Bibliography

* [[[ISO_22739,ISO 22739:2020]]]

* [[[EVANS_DDD,1]]], Eric EVANS. _Domain-Driven Design: Tackling Complexity in Software_.
Addison-Wesley: 2004.

Entering a bibliographic entry

Bibliographic references (citations) are entered using a specialized list syntax.

  1. Starts with a list item indicator (*).

  2. Followed by a pair of triple square brackets ([[[ …​ ]]]) which contains

    • A unique anchor name used to reference this entry. This anchor has to be unique per document.

    • A document identifier (also called the “reference label”) that identifies this reference to the reader. If the cited document is a standard, it is likely that Metanorma can automatically fetch bibliographic information for it via Relaton.

      If Metanorma recognizes a document identifier, it will overwrite any title you provide with the authoritative title of the reference.
  3. After the triple brackets, the citation text is entered manually. IEEE uses the Chicago Manual of Style citation format as documented in the IEEE SA Standards Style Manual.

Syntax for a bibliographic entry
* [[[{anchor},{document identifier}]]], _citation text_
Example 1. Example of an auto-fetched entry

The following two statements will create identical outputs.

* [[[IEEE_528-2019,IEEE 528-2019]]]
* [[[IEEE_528-2019,IEEE 528-2019]]], IEEE. _IEEE Standard for Inertial Sensor Terminology_ (2019).
Available at:

Referencing a bibliographic entry

There are two ways to cite a bibliography entry entered in the bibliography sections.

  1. Cite the whole document, by cross-referencing the anchor name like this: <<IEEE_528-2019>>.

  2. Cite a particular locality of the document, by cross-referencing the anchor name but additionally specify a locality as the second argument, like this: <<IEEE_528-2019,part=IV,chapter=3,paragraph=12>>.

Bibliography example

The following source code illustrates how a bibliography section looks like in Metanorma AsciiDoc.

Example 2. Example for a bibliography section
== Normative references

* [[[ISO20483,ISO 20483:2013]]], _Cereals and cereal products -- Determination of moisture content -- Reference method_

* [[[ISO6540,ISO 6540:1980]]]. _Maize -- Determination of moisture content (on milled grains and on whole grains)_

Gets rendered as:

  • ISO 20483:2013. Cereals and cereal products — Determination of moisture content — Reference method

  • ISO 6540:1980. Maize — Determination of moisture content (on milled grains and on whole grains)

Auto-fetching IEEE references

Relaton fetches bibliographic entries for IEEE documents, when the syntax matches the following:

IEEE(identifier) (e.g. IEEE(528-2019)), or any identifier prefixed with IEEE.

  • If Relaton can resolve the reference, the bibliographic information from the database will be rendered.

    Example 3. Example of a IEEE standard reference
    * [[[IEEE_528-2019,IEEE 528-2019]]], _Standard for Specifying ..._

    will render:

    IEEE 528-2019, IEEE Standard for Inertial Sensor Terminology (2019). Available at:

  • If Relaton can not resolve the reference, the provided description will be rendered.

    Example 4. Another example
    * [[[GeoRSS,GeoRSS]]], GeoRSS Geographically Encoded Objects for RSS Feeds. (

    will render:

    GeoRSS Geographically Encoded Objects for RSS Feeds. (